– knowledge control: a complete set of methods used to determine a student's progress in mastering a discipline (course) or module. Usually, these methods include a written, oral, laboratory, and practical test/exam, a project, a presentation (report) with accompanying documents. The control of knowledge can be intermediate (current certification-self-control) - so that the student can assess the progress in the development of knowledge, or conducted by an educational institution to determine whether the student has achieved the results of training at the end of a section of the course or module (certification - based on the results of a section of the course, discipline or module).
– knowledge control assessment criteria: A description of what is expected of the student to demonstrate that their knowledge meets the established knowledge requirements. Criteria usually refer to the cycle and/or level descriptors for the module being studied within the relevant discipline.
Ministers have entrusted the implementation of all the issues covered in the Berlin Communiqué, the overall steering of the Bologna Process and the preparation of the next ministerial meeting to the Bologna Follow-up Group (BFUG), formed in Berlin Conference in October, 2003. The Group is a key element and executive body of the Bologna Process. The BFUG is composed of the representatives of all member states of the Bologna Process and of some international organization as consultative members. BFUG meets at least twice a year, chaired by the EU Presidency, with the host country of the next Ministerial Conference as vice-chair. A Board, also chaired by the EU Presidency and with the next host country as vice-chair, will oversee the work between the meetings of the BFUG. The overall follow-up work will be supported by the Bologna Secretariat which the country hosting the next Ministerial Conference will provide.
Each member states of the Bologna Process has own national working group on the development of the Bologna Process.
– a group of students who started this qualification program or course in the same year.
– competencies are a dynamic combination of knowledge, skills, skills, and abilities. The formation and development of competencies is the goal of the educational program. Competencies are formed in different sections of the training course and evaluated at its various stages. They can be divided into competencies related to the subject of study (professional) and general competencies (independent of the content of the training program).
– A period of time of 45-60 minutes of the learning process in direct contact between the teacher and the student or group of students.
- convergence involves the voluntary perception of appropriate actions to achieve a common goal. The Bologna Process is essentially a convergence of building national higher education systems in Europe.
- course section (academic unit, discipline) - a content-based, formally structured part of the course. The section must contain: an appropriate and clearly defined list of learning outcomes set out in terms of competencies, as well as appropriate criteria for evaluating knowledge. Different sections of the course may have a different number of credits.
- the concept of learning work is associated with the required – usually supervised and evaluated – learning activity within a course section or module.
– a numerical way of expressing the volume and level of knowledge based on the achievement of learning outcomes, as well as the corresponding level of labor intensity, measured in units of time. The credit can also be credited to the student after checking that the student has achieved the set learning outcomes at a certain level, corresponding to the labor costs of the ongoing training or previously completed training.
– in the cumulative credit system, in order to successfully complete training in a semester, in an academic year, or in the entire curriculum, you must receive (credit) a certain number of credits set by the requirements of this program. Credits are credited (and accumulated) only after the successful achievement of the students ' learning outcomes is confirmed by the knowledge control. Students can use the cumulative credit system to transfer or accumulate credits credited to programs with a prescribed labor intensity or to other programs in one or different educational institutions. The credit accumulation system also allows students to master individual sections of courses or modules without the need for immediate academic recognition of learning outcomes.
– a system that facilitates the measurement and comparison of learning outcomes in the context of different qualifications, educational programs, and learning environments, based on the labor intensity of the student's academic work, measured in units of time.
– an indicator of the relative learning requirements or the degree of freedom given to the student in this section or module. This indicator is usually associated with the depth and complexity of the study and is sometimes associated with the year (course) of study and/or with the features of the content of the section.
– in this form of knowledge control, specific characteristics, abilities, skills, behavioral units, and assessments are selected as criteria that determine the threshold for successful "passing" of this control. At the same time, a "shortfall" in one criterion value can be compensated for by success in another. Such a control system is usually associated with a "threshold minimum" for achieving learning outcomes.
– three consecutive stages defined in the Bologna Process (first cycle, second cycle, and third cycle), within which all qualifications of the European higher education system are located.
– generalized descriptions of a wide range of learning outcomes for each of the three cycles, consistent with the definitions of the Bologna Process.